Media student

UGC and participation

Jonssion & Ornebring have mainly focused on the UGC for newspapers and tabloid, which also has their online forms (news websites). Their audiences are in developed countries like Sweden and United Kingdom. Newspapers, it is possible that the UGC contributors are generally educated.

Tacchi (2012), the UGC contributors are not just uneducated (mostly), they are also from the “third world” countries. So, they use radio.

Participation, in Janssion & Ornebring looked like top-down, from audience (consumer, after commodification of audience and sometime “free” labor to producers (editor, who has the power over the content). Considering the dual role that users can perform for the producers, it is hard to confirm there is always “actual democratic potential of audience.”

Because 1. Not everything that the user “comments” will have chance/priority (there is always some kind of gatekeeping at some stage) to appear on the screen, 2. Comments are accepted (sometime) because they are more free (labor) than to respect their democratic freedom of expression. Like the authors have mentioned, it is more like the “empowerment” of “pseudo-power” which is the result of users’ gratifications most of the time. Also it is less likely that all the comments are treated equally, shown, or even read by other users. No wonder they are categorized in different levels like low, medium and high.

Besides, the comments are made on a subject like those media organizations have already set a “frame/s” upon. So, it is less likely that the UGC are original content. Also, it can be guessed that participations could be higher these days compared to the days of postal ‘letter to the editor’. But, the idea of gatekeeping can come to effect for both online comments and the traditional letter to the editor.

Meanwhile, participation approach in Tacchi has both vertical (generally bottom to up) and horizontal (it is the local people who train, gather data and facilitate and encourage the people for UGC. The ICT4D approach to fulfill what media should do looks to be more effective that what media and technology do or can do in development.

I am from Nepal, finished my schooling in the state of Tamil Nadu, India which is in between Andhra Pradesh – another state in the North and neighboring country Sri Lanka in the South. They share ethnographic and cultural values. So, I can understand where the author is coming from when she is introducing role of participatory or open content creation for the “voice” to be heard.

Most of the “voice” of those voiceless goes unheard by respective authorities. But the people are very responsive and reactive to media, especially radio and TV. Besides, it is very easy for the people in these regions to personalize stories because each region has one major language, culture, and other similar demographic. So, the voice is one of their own telling a story by their own, which can have greater effect.


November 26, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 7 Comments

“remix” – The ‘R-MAN’ for Rajanikant

You will be quite surprised to see the result for goggling a name ‘Rajanikant’. I called him the ‘R-MAN’ for this project. He is a movie star from Tamil Nadu, South-India. He is a larger than life individual in that part of the world. He is so well know that there are thousands of jokes made on him (as a Super Hero). He is celebrated more than any super heroes on the silver screen in South India. Meanwhile, enjoys a godly status in real life. This is just a small showcase of what people really think of him on the screen.

November 12, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 10 Comments

Crowdsourcing – To help snow driving hazards in Mid-West

I worked in Nebraska TV (NTV) station. It snows there during this time of the year. People in Mid-West are very participatory. ‘Community Correspondent’ (CC) used to be a participatory section in each news bulletin. Ton of pictures flowed in so that people could be recognized for their work. Some of them were regular participants who sent a lot of pictures, including seasonal ones. I remember a lot of comments they posted with their pictures spoke tons about their motivations for taking their pictures. Like Brabham (2012) explained, most of them gave a sense like they like being recognized by peers, to contribute and collaborate, express themselves, and some of them used to be fun pictures.

Sometimes there used to be pictures of driving hazards that occur during snowfalls. It’s known to all that government spends a lot of money for the cleanup of the road snow and other obstacles.

The same motivation shown for the CC can be used for more productive cause. A crowdsourcing website called Snowmageddon is an online forum that maps the obstacles on the roads and informs about it so that required help is met. According to the New York Times, it is the service that started since 2010-11 winter season that maps where there are vehicles stuck and fallen trees so that respective officials, working crew, and regular public can help to get things back to normal during snowfalls. The New York Times also reported that this facility is now used in cities like Washington-DC and New York. I was hoping to replicate similar facility in Mid-West region too.

An attempt can be made to culminate same/similar TV audience for crowdsourcing purpose. It can be a great help for people, especially commuters. Above all it is not fun to be stuck in snow, and so much worse and hazardous a rescue operation can be.

Learning more about Snowmageddon, I also found out that it uses “Ushahidi” to map the spots/locations of incidences. A data or text to Ushahidi, they are combined with data from Twitter, YouTube and others to check its reliability. Higher the rating gets, grater the reliability. The value and importance of such information in fact can be a motivational factor for both the users/providers of the information.

From my experience with NTV audience, most of Brabham (2012) motivational factor can be brought to use here to increase participation. After all, like Andresen (2009) mentioned in his article that in cases like this the solution finders are those who are local and not an expert of the subject. This is another case where Andresen’s claim might just fit.

Rating the information provider based on accuracy and importance of information may also boost intrinsic motivation (2012).

There are many festivals from November through January/February. Festival theme templates on website and apps displays may add to fun (Andresen, 2009) with easy access (Brabham, 2012) covering different kinds of devices.Country music is a big thing there. So, country music artists and related radio stations can be used to promote this project.

November 5, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 4 Comments

Elections and citizen journalism

Kaufhold et al. talk about the roles of New Media vs. traditional media in informing the US citizen, making them politically knowledgeable and make them participate in it. Akoh & Kwami does similar study, focusing on the 10 African countries. However, both the articles had similar conclusions, i.e even though the New Media is increasing its role; it’s not as influential as the traditional media in informing people for their political information. It is found to be true regardless of country, and kind of democracy the country(ies) practice.

I think election news is going to all about being timely. Election results’ news is going to go out so fast because of the new media technology. Online content (especially user generated) are not always easy to trust, but it will still have its own audiences throughout the world. If you take the upcoming US presidential election for an example, the whole world is looking up to it. Not every country has reliable traditional or other popular media. Many of them will learn about the result from new media, could even be user generated content. From the articles, especially the one from Akoh & Kwami, it is clear that citizens around the world will use the New Media technology (mainly their cell phones). Their sources are not always going to be online publications from traditional media. Some of them may even be the “hyperlocal” reporting etc.

Situation like this will change the whole election scenario in future. Besides having the reporters from the traditional media, there are going to be more watchdogs covering the election. The electoral will have more people, to whom they will have to answer. Results from both the articles, more or less, support that both professional and citizen journalism can effect citizen’s political participation. Even though professional journalism tends to “foster political learning” and score more than citizen journalism, citizen journalism definitely seems to be on its course.

Changes will take place in the way political parties and electoral will communicate. According to Akoh & Kwami the electoral management bodies need to have their recent and updated information available on their websites. Besides helping with the political communications, this will also help the watchdogs to tract the governance body during their “tenure” and remind them if their acts varied from their “party speeches and campaign promises.”

All the changes mentioned above, in media, politics, elections and their news coverage, will help democracy. Kaufhold et al., and Akoh & Kwami stated that traditional media and election were both cornerstones of democracy. If traditional media that is slowly expiring (Kaufhold et al.), the citizen journalism offers hope of a “better-informed democracy.” Citizen journalism is one of the many good things offered by the New Media. Overall, both articles help formulate a relationship between democracy, election, journalism (traditional and citizen) and media (old and new). So, I don’t think culmination of all this will not change democracy, but will give a new dimension to it for good.

October 29, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 5 Comments

Viral online media – “Why this Kolaveri Di” from South-India.

In late 2011, a music video for the making of a Tamil song  ‘Why this Kolaveri Di’ from a South Indian movie  ‘3’ went viral.  According to a news published in BBC ‘Tamil’nonsense’ film song goes viral in India’ was got over two million hits in Youtube within the first month, which was later also confirmed by CNN. The video which was rather a nicely done personal video by the movies’s crew members(who can be seen in the video), later uploaded by the Sony Music for the publicity (advertisement) of the movie, was also shared over as many as 700,000 times on Facebook within the first week of its release.

The news published not only explains few “Tamglish” (language used in the song by mixing English and Tamil words for the listeners to understand the meaning of the song if they know any of the two languages), but also explains at what point of the story line in the movie does the song appear. After one reads the news and watched the video (below), it is easy to understand why this video could have gone viral.

According to the news, the song is song by a boy who is drunk because his woman dumped him at the particular sequence in the movie. If we listen to the so called subtitles of the song on the original YouTube video, one can guess that there are more elements of  “negative (anger or anxiety) emotions” than “High-arousal positivity (awe)” supporting certain aspect of Beger & Milkman (2012)’s findings. However,  KONY 2012 seemed to have both “positive and the negative emotion” aspects that helped it to go viral, supporting Beger & Milkman’s findings. Youth’s attempt to find support for KONY 2012 is a positive emotion Whereas the reason for their support for KONY 2012 (to end KONY’s dark era) a negative one. A good enough recipe to go viral.

Coming back to “Kolaveri Di,” there is also one thing to note and that the song is supposed to be a sad one. The duo in their article (2012) claimed that when content evokes “emotions characterized by deactivation (i.e., sadness)” such contents are less likely to be shared. But, in this case it can be said that the video has contradicted with the finding and still went viral. Also, the song’s going viral also contradicted with Beger & Milkman’s another finding that says the positive message is more likely to go viral. There is nothing very positive in the song and its message except for the way it is composed, a creative “Tamglish”.

I think it may to do with the fact that the people recognized that it is a movie (song) is not a real life event. The fact that the work is done for a movie could have help in its going viral despite contradicting with the findings from Beger & Milkman in a few instances. Just a guess, but it did go viral.

The following is actual music video in the movie, post-production.

October 21, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 3 Comments

Twitter – “Not my cup of tea” yet.

My twitter account is @sanambhaila. I am an amateur twitter user.

For this week’s blog assignment, I decided to follow news organizations than individuals. I am not one of those ‘go happy’ twitter users. For some reason I always found it is not something that is meant for me, or maybe I am not meant for it. When I first logged in sometime last year I could never feel comfortable with its 140 character limit, # and @ symbols. With time I am learning to be efficient, however I should confess that I have never used (lived in the twitter world) like I did in last two days. That’s why I thought I should let all of you know that I am an amateur user. However, I am glad that I have been able to see certain patters in Tweeter last todays.

I had decided to follow 12 news organizations and I got around 60-65 tweets every hour. If I wanted I could select the ones that interest me the most from which ever news organization that I want. I should accept the fact that I did not re-tweet or reply or marked favorite except a few. But in almost every tweet that I get from any of the news organization that I was following were pretty much re-tweeted or make the news as ‘Favorites’ with a minute or so by other tweeter user. These features are some of the things that I think can be related to “timeliness and responsive” from Wilson’s article, which leads to ‘ambient fandom’. It was amazing to see almost every tweets from the news organizations re-tweeted or marked as Favorite by so many users.

This can also be related to ‘participator culture’ and ‘micro-celebrity’ concept mentioned by Marwick and boyd. In the case following of news organization (source), what I noticed is that sometimes it is the same user/s who is re-tweeting the similar kinds of news or news from same/similar news organization. Like Marwick and boyd mentioned, I suppose (from what I have understood from two days of following tweeter so closely), it must have to do with the user/s ‘self-branding’ that they re-tweet or mark ‘favorite’ only certain kinds of news or news from certain sources within/for his/her tweet follower/following circle.

However, I think I could almost certainly say that none of the news organization that I choose was the fake ones. I realized it later, especially after reading the articles, that faking is more common with individuals and celebrities than news organizations…I suppose.

Overall, I found the tweeter very overwhelming. I don’t know if I like it or not. I was excited when I read the instructions from Prof. McAdams for this week when she said that right choice may make me “like Twitter more than” I thought I would. But for now it is definitely not my cup of tea. SORRY.

October 15, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 4 Comments

Media Diary – Day 7 Summary

Well, every good thing comes to an end; this Media Diary experience was no different. After a week full of effort, I am writing my last diary post. I should say that I have learned quite a lot about my own media use habits. Some of them were eye opener, whereas there are also things that I never realized I do.

So to begin with, I have found out that I use both my phone and laptop as my main source of media. I use my phone – first thing after I wake up in the morning, when I am driving, on the bus and in the gym. I use it most to listen to music, then comes email, Facebook and news, then for making calls, watch videos and least for texting. I just found out today that I had hardly used 15 out of 1000 allowed texts per billing cycle. I have also realize that there are only 15 to 20 Apps that I use most on my phone out of over 60 Apps that are installed. I hardly send an email using my phone. The best I do is ‘Like,’ ‘ Share,’ and short ‘Comments.’ Anything other than that I would rather use my laptop.

Laptop, I have realized that I am in front of my computer at least eight to ten hours a day, which I expected it to be so. Beside the regular uses I also use it for my course readings. I do not have a TV yet. So, I should say my laptop is the second most expensive thing I own after my car. And at this point I am glad that I do not own a TV, because I get distracted very easily. However, I should say that I have really not got distracted this week. Now, that I know that I am in front of my screen for such a long time everyday, I think I should think about doing something to help my eyes.

Another thing I have realized is that there are only 10 to 15 websites that I visit most frequently. This is without counting the websites that are results from search engine use. I am not sure if this is normal. However, it is doing one good for sure, ‘Less Distractions’. The top websites that I visit most are Google, Facebook, Cricinfo, our class blog, my blog, UF website (including the UF library page), Gmail, YouTube, and CNN.

I have also discovered this week is that I hardly read anything from hard copies these days, since everything this days are online. The fact that I do not have any compulsory text book for this semester to follow adds to the fact. Well there is one that I am reading right now, Media Ethics at Work, but I use the PDF version of that. Newspapers, it is something I miss a lot. There are three reasons that I am not reading newspapers these days. One, because almost everything is online, and I am staying home all most everyday unless I have to go to my classes or the gym. Lastly, I hardly have time for it, which I don’t think is a right thing to say being a journalism student.

I also realize that I use my car music system for my iPhone. I hardly listen to any radio stations. I don’t even remember when was the last time I listen to radio when I was driving. I think this is a habit that I need to change and start listening to radio as well.

Next analysis that I have made about myself is this. There is this speculation that the traditional media will be replaced slowly by new media over time. I think this is something that is true with me. I don’t listen to radio, don’t subscribe or find a newspaper, and do not have a TV. My laptop and my iPhone do everything for me. The irony is that I have a MP3 player, a mini MP3 player (from Apple), and an iPod, which I never use and find them outdated. This last sentence that I wrote scares me. I am glad I am not thinking about iPhone5.

The amazing change I have seen in my media use is that, I could barely type 30 words per minute before I came to the US in 2006. Until 2004, I used to check my emails once every month if possible, never owned a computer, used a high speed internet only at work since 2005, and I had only heard about Wifi. Everything I did on using my computer and phone this week, would still comprehend to be more that my entire media (only internet) use per year prior 2005.

May be that is that reason, I am still not very vocal in using the social media. When I checked my social media uses pattern, I updating my status around 2-3 per month in last 2-3 years, changed my profile picture barely once a month. I used to follow people more than being vocal.

I do not make too much phone calls either. If I do not count those Viber calls from Nepal, there were only three people that I talked with, this week. My wife, my neighbor next door, and my friend with whom I go to the gym.

Basically, I see myself as someone who has almost given up the traditional media, but yet to become an efficient new media user. I might go back to TV once I have enough money and time, but I am still not sure about radio and newspaper. Online news, radio apps and podcasts have replaced it for me. It will be interesting to see if this will change after I graduate. I think this has more to do with college, class, and having minimal (almost zero) social life.

October 14, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Media Diary – Day 6

It is Friday, but no party. You can tell it looking at the time that I am uploading this blog post. Also, a “Big NO” to any movie or video today. I have had enough of it this week. So, I had promised I would give my eyes some rest.

After the regular morning activities…Again Gmail, Facebook, News, and coffee, I come in front of my desk. The first thing I did was read the second article for this week, To See and Be Seen: Celebrity Practice on Twitter by Marwick and boyd (2011). Before I could download the article, I had to download VPN security system for me to be able to access the article. I thought I had done it, but apparently not. Thanks to prof. McAdams for her instructions. Also, my wife and I exchanged few texts while each of were caught up in our reading.

Then I opened the class blog to go through the instructions for this week’s assignment. Trust me, this was not the first time I was going through the instructions. I had done it a couple of times yesterday as well. I wonder how prof. McAdam comes up with all these ideas.

Next, my Microsoft Office was not working properly. So, I had to install it again, because I need it for pretty much everything I do, I mean the class works. Apart for posting the comments of different blog posts, I did send few emails today. Two major ones were, an email to my sister and a ‘Thank You’ email to Dr. Churchill for dinner last night.

Then I headed to my Kitchen to cook something. I played my playlist from my phone as my Chowmine was cooking. That’s when I realized that my playlist is getting too repetitive now. As I was eating, I got my computer in front of me, got into a free Hindi song down loading site. It’s called It has a lot of popup ads, but then that’s what you get for something that is free. I have to accept that I am always in two minds anytime I am using this site, it is online P_ _ _ _ _. I don’t want to say the word.

As I was doing this, I was also talking to my wife on the phone. Lunch time is talk time for us. I had my speaker on, because I was too busy selecting songs, talking to her and eating at the same time. I was able to download about 12 songs. Our conversation ended with the lunch.

I was checking my emails, and I got a phone call. My friend, with whom I go to the gym, called me to come and check FIFA 2013, a game that he bought for his PS3. This is the one of the few video games that I play. So, I had to go. Besides, it is Friday – all the more reason. I tried playing it. The graphics and display were great. As expected the player control is lot harder and realistic in this addition. I had read and watched its review on last week. I guess they were right. We were all over it for about an hour and I had to come home. What else, Reading.

I have a book to finish as soon as I can for Dr. Walsh-Childers. It is Media Ethics at Work. I don’t even know if it is right to talk about this book when I am talking about downloading songs in one the paragraphs above. However, I wanted to finish at least four to five chapters today before going to gym, which I did. It took me about fives hours to complete it.

I left for gym at 10:30 pm. I had forgotten to upload those new songs to my phone. Since, it was already getting late I did not bother about it. I fact I did not even carry my headphone. I did not want to do anything else but workout today. So, I set the phone aside – the songs were getting repetitive anyways, I turn off the little screen attached to the machine that used to working out, and tried not to look at the big screen TV set on the wall in front of me. It is Friday.

After 1 am I came home, freshened up and skimmed through my emails and news updates. That’s when I came across the sad news that said ‘Jessica Ridgeway body positively identified’. It made me both sad and angry. It reminded me about the famous Casey Anthony’s case. I just said, one more incident, here we go again. I scolded myself, because I had promised myself that I would not watch any video today. The first one I watch, just because it was news and it was a chilling one. In madness, I immediately turned off whatever browsers that were on and tried engaging myself with the Media Diary.

October 13, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Media Diary – Day 5

A typical Thursday. I would wake up late; begin my day on a slow mood. I like keeping my Thursdays a low profile one. After regular Facebook, Gmail, news updates on my phone and some coffee, life comes to reality.

First thing I did was that I sat in front of my computer, opened the class (course) blog, to see what in store for us this week. As instructed I tried down loading the reading materials for the week and had my twitter account ready to go, which is required for this assignment.

It was already 2 pm by the time I finished reading the article by Wilson (2011), but could not download the other one from Marwick & boyd (2011). After I let prof. McAdams know about it, I got myself set to watch another documentary titled, Before Stonewall by Greta Schiller (1985). This was the same documentary that I was not able to find on YouTube yesterday. But today it was right there. It was a reviving documentary.

Dr. Churchill had invited everybody in his class for a dinner today at 6 pm. But, before that, whatever time I had let between watching the documentary and before I left for Dr. Churchill’s house, I read a portion from the book Radio Free Dixie by Timothy B. Tyson. It talked about the legacies of Robert Williams, and was related to the video Negro with the guns that I watched yesterday. I read half way through it and it was time to get ready.

Earlier in the day I had emailed Dr. Churchill asking for his address. By then I had already got a reply from him with his address on it. At 5:15 pm I left. The MapQuest that I downloaded the other day came handy today too. However, I decided not to listen to music when I am driving today since I had to follow the direction. I am not so much used to this App yet.

It was a good Chinese dinner that Dr. Churchill and his wife prepared today. After the dinner it was time for another documentary, Please Vote for me. This time it was on TV, and I think it must be a DVD player that he used. I am glad that I am found this Youtube video that explains the content of the video  The documentary was done just when it was two minutes to go until the debate between vice president (VP) candidates kicked off, VP Biden and Congressman Ryan. We watch this on msnbc at Dr. Churchill’s house. Later I could find the rerun of the debate on YouTube as well.

After I came home I turned on my computer, and opened CNN homepage because I wanted to see their reaction. It was mainly because msnbc immediately announced after the debate was over that VP Biden was a clear winner, and I wanted to cross check it with other news source. Who better than CNN?

Back to reality now. I continued reading the Legacies of Robert Williams. After that it is the Media Diary time. Overall, it was not whole lot of media use that I did if you go by numbers. However, if you go by amount of time spend it is not so much different. The fact that it is 3:37 am when I am writing this particular sentence tells it all. Time to call the day I guess.

October 12, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Media Diary – Day 4

Wednesdays are usually the busiest day I have for this semester. Mainly because I have two long classes, each lasting over a couple of hours. It will be interesting to find out how much media use I do on my busiest day. I have never thought about it in this perspective.

So, it was a phone call that woke me up around 9:30 am. Today, it was my cousin sister from Nepal whom I wanted to talk since quite a while. I had not talked to her since she got married last month. So, I could not ignore this call. She called me in Viber, the App that I was referring to in my last post. I brewed my coffee meanwhile.  The conversation lasted for half an hour after which I freshened up, sat down in front of my computer to make use of whatever time was left before I left home. My first class begins at 11:45 am.

Grading quiz for Dr. Walsh-Childers was one of the first assignments that I picked for the day. I had to grade and post the grades in an Excel document for her. So, I guess it was some kind of media use. But, before that I checked my email, shot an email to her saying that I was on my way to get the job done. I was sure that she must be concern about it as I had not posted about any updates about my progress to her since last Friday. I was only able to get half way through the job and it was time to leave for my first class.

Rossy, the character that is talked a lot about in the movie ‘The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter’

As usual, I had my head phone on, and jumping from one news App to another to see if there is anything interesting that I could come across. I made it to the class on time. The class discussion was on three videos such as The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter, Generation 68, a film by Simon Brook (excerpt) and Tongues Untied about which I had talked in one of my previous posts. Besides the introductory part of the class it was mostly watching these videos. I was glad that I was ahead of the game with Tongues Untied. All together we watched over a two hours of video from three different movies. That’s when I realized that it was going to be a movie day as I had already planned to watch two other documentaries later in the day for the same class.

At about 1:40 pm the class was over. I got caught up with the grading that I had begun earlier in the day. I had little over an hour to complete it before my second class began. I got it done, entered the grades in the Excel file and I thought I would wait until the evening before I submit the final grade to Dr. Walsh-Childers.

The second class, everybody (well, all most everybody) made it to class on time. Before that I managed to look at a few notes that I had prepared from the readings that were assigned for this week. It was ‘Hacktivism,’ definitely not one of the topics that I knew a lot about. The presentation, I thought I can consider it as part of my media uses even though I was not the primary user or provider, was great one. However, I should admit everything that I learned from it and the readings were all completely new.

About 5:00 pm, that’s when I realized that I hadn’t had my lunch. I had it set downstairs, completely forgot about it until my tommy started to act up. As soon as the class was done, I headed downstairs, warmed up the food and headed to Reitz union. I picked corner, set up my laptop for another video that I needed to watch and sat down with my late lunch or early supper (whatever one might call it). It was the video Negroes with Guns: Rob Williams and Black Power by Sandra Dickson and our very own Dr. Churchill. Dr. Churchill had handed out DVDs of this movie to watch it in our leisure. After the movie, I double checked the graded that I had posted in the Excel file and send it to Dr. Walsh-Childers. Job done.

I came home, took a nap until my friend called me to go to gym as usual. I still had one more video left for the day, and believe me it was the longest one. I wanted to watch the video titled Before Stonewall by Greta Schiller (1985), but I couldn’t find it on YouTube. However, I was able to find After Stonewall though, which is a sequel of Before Stonewall. They are both assigned by Dr. Churchill. I choose to go in the reverse order. I did not have a much of the choice there. Then I came home, too tired by now. One last thing before I call the day. Media Diary.

Oops! I have made no phone calls today not even my WIFE. She must be mad…I just know it, because she didn’t call me either. She should read this post I guess and she will know why!!!

October 11, 2012 Posted by | Uncategorized | 1 Comment